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Pazos, Montserrat; Corradini, Stefanie; Dian, Darius; Bodungen, Vera von; Ditsch, Nina; Würstlein, Rachel; Schönecker, Stephan; Harbeck, Nadia; Scheithauer, Heike; Belka, Claus (2017): Neoadjuvant radiotherapy followed by mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. In: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, Vol. 193, No. 4: pp. 324-331
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Abstract

Background The optimal sequence of mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) and radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is still under debate. Increased rates of postoperative complications are described following postmastectomy RT. Neoadjuvant RT aims to improve the aesthetic results and simplify the reconstructive pathway. Patients A total of 22 patients diagnosed with LABC and treated with neoadjuvant RT followed by mastectomy and IBR between 04/2012 and 03/2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RT consisted of external beam RT to the breast and the regional lymphatics, if indicated. Both implantbased and autologous tissue-transfer reconstruction techniques were used. Results At the time of RT, 10 patients had no prior surgery and 12 patients had previously undergone breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with positive resection margins without the possibility to perform a second BCS. Additional neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 18 patients prior to RT. A complete pathological response was achieved in 55.0% of patients. The 2-year overall survival rate was 89.3%, the 2-year disease-free-survival 79.8% and the local-recurrence-free survival was 95.2%. The cosmetic result was excellent or good in 66% of the patients treated with upfront mastectomy and 37% of the patients who had previously undergone BCS. Among patients who received implant-based IBR, 4 patients developed serious woundhealing problems with implant loss. The most satisfactory results were achieved with autologous tissue reconstruction. Conclusion A sequential neoadjuvant chemo-/radiotherapy to allow IBR following mastectomy in selected cases of LABC seems feasible and can be safely attempted. Careful patient selection, close monitoring, and continuous patient support is mandatory to ensure compliance in this treatment strategy.