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Kunz, C.; Cornelius, C.-P.; Audigé, L.; Thieringer, F.; Buitrago-Telléz, C.; Metzger, M.; Wilde, F.; Prein, J. (2017): Orbitafrakturen nach der AO-CMF-Level-3-Trauma-Klassifikation. In: Mkg-Chirurg, Vol. 10, No. 2: pp. 91-103
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Abstract

The midface level 2 of the AO-CMF trauma classification for adults enables the location of fractures to be recorded within defined subregions of the central and lateral midface. Fractures within the orbital framework as well as the internal orbit or orbital walls as well as the orbital apex are separately addressed. Level 3, which is reviewed here, brings about further precision to fracture assignment by distinction of more topographical divisions of the orbit, within the orbital frame, the anterior and midorbit as well as the orbital apex. In addition the fracture documentation may be extended to include anatomical structures with particular therapeutic relevance, such as the involvement of the inferior and/or superior orbital fissure, the greater wing of the sphenoid, the internal orbital buttress, the optic foramen and the lacrimal bone. The rules and regulations on determination of the localization and morphology of orbital fractures as well as their coding are explained and illustrated with computed tomography (CT) images in case examples.