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Desai, Jyaysi; Foresto-Neto, Orestes; Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Steiger, Stefanie; Nakazawa, Daigo; Popper, Bastian; Buhl, Eva Miriam; Boor, Peter; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Anders, Hans-Joachim (2017): Particles of different sizes and shapes induce neutrophil necroptosis followed by the release of neutrophil extracellular trap-like chromatin. In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, 15003
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The human body is exposed to a wide range of particles of industrial, environmental or internal origin such as asbestos, alum, silica or crystals of urate, calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, cystine or cholesterol. Phagocytic clearance of such particles involves neutrophils and macrophages. Here we report that neutrophils encountering such particles of diverse sizes and shapes undergo necrotic cell death, a process associated with the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-like extracellular DNA. In human neutrophils receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-1 inhibition with necrostatin-1s or mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) inhibition with necrosulfonamide abrogated cell death and associated-neutrophil extracellular DNA release induced by all of the aforementioned particles. Similar results were obtained with Mlkl-deficient mice neutrophils for all particles in vitro. Furthermore, Mlkl-deficient mice lacked tophus formation upon injection of MSU crystals into subcutaneous air pouches. These findings imply that nano-or microparticle-induced neutrophil extracellular DNA release is the consequence of neutrophil necroptosis, a regulated form of cell necrosis defined by RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL signaling. Interestingly, this finding was consistent across different particle sizes and shapes. The RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL signaling pathway may represent a potential therapeutic target in nano-or microparticle-related diseases (crystallopathies).