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Ovsepian, Saak Victor; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Freitag, Susana Valero; Rodrigues, Eva Ferreira; Herms, Jochen (2017): Ambient Glutamate Promotes Paroxysmal Hyperactivity in Cortical Pyramidal Neurons at Amyloid Plaques via Presynaptic mGluR1 Receptors. In: Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 27, No. 10: pp. 4733-4749
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Abstract

Synaptic dysfunctions and altered neuronal activity play major role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with underlying mechanisms largely unknown. We report that in the prefrontal cortex of amyloid precursor protein-presenilin 1 and APP23 AD mice, baseline activity of pyramidal cells is disrupted by episodes of paroxysmal hyperactivity. Induced by spontaneous EPSC bursts, these incidents are prevalent in neurons proximal to amyloid plaques and involve enhanced activity of glutamate with metabotropic effects. Abolition of EPSC bursts by tetrodotoxin and SERCA ATPase blockers thapsigargin or cyclopiasonic acid suggests their presynaptic origin and sensitized store-released calcium. Accordingly, the rate of EPSC bursts activate (+/-)-HIP-A and DL-TBOA together with histochemical and ultrastructural evidence for enrichment of plaque-related dystrophies with synaptic vesicles and SNARE protein SNAP-25 infer the later as hot-spots for ectopic release of glutamate. Inhibition of EPSC bursts by I/II mGluR1 blocker MCPG or selective mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 implicate metabotropic glutamatergic effects in generation of paroxysmal bursts. These findings demonstrate for the first time that at amyloid plaques, enhanced activity of nonsynaptic glutamate can promote irregular EPSC bursts with hyperactivity of pyramidal cells via mGluR1 receptors.