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Hennenberg, Martin; Acevedo, Alice; Wiemer, Nicolas; Kan, Aysenur; Tamalunas, Alexander; Wang, Yiming; Yu, Qingfeng; Rutz, Beata; Ciotkowska, Anna; Herlemann, Annika; Strittmatter, Frank; Stief, Christian G.; Gratzke, Christian (2017): Non-Adrenergic, Tamsulosin-Insensitive Smooth Muscle Contraction Is Sufficient to Replace alpha(1)-Adrenergic Tension in the Human Prostate. In: Prostate, Vol. 77, No. 7: pp. 697-707
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BACKGROUND. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia may be caused by prostate smooth muscle contraction. Although alpha(1)-blockers may improve symptoms by prostate smooth muscle relaxation, their efficacy is limited. This may be explained by non-adrenergic mediators causing contraction in parallel to alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. However, little is known about the relevance and cooperative actions of non-adrenergic mediators in the prostate. METHODS. Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy (n = 127 patients). Contractile responses were studied in an organ bath. RESULTS. Endothelin-1 and noradrenaline induced contractions of similar magnitude (116 +/- 23 and 117 +/- 18% of KCl-induced contractions). Endothelin-2-and -3-induced maximum contractions of 63 +/- 8.6 and 71 +/- 19% of KCl, while contractions by the thromboxane analog U46619 amounted up to 63 +/- 9.4%. Dopamine-induced contractions averaged to 22 +/- 4.5% of KCl, while maximum contractions by serotonin, histamine, and carbachol stayed below 10% of KCl-induced. While noradrenaline-induced contractions were inhibited by tamsulosin (300 nM), endothelin-1-, -2-, or -3-induced contraction were not. No additive effects were observed if endothelins and noradrenaline were applied consecutively to the same samples. If endothelin-1 was applied after U46619, resulting tension (172 +/- 43% of KCl) significantly exceeded noradrenaline-induced contraction. Tensions following combined application of endothelin-2 or -3 with U46619 stayed below noradrenaline-induced contractions. Tension following combined application of all three endothelins with U46619 resembled maximum noradrenaline-induced tone. CONCLUSIONS. Contractions following concomitant confrontation of human prostate tissue with noradrenaline and endothelin-1 are not additive. Endothelin-1 is sufficient to induce a smooth muscle tone resembling that of noradrenaline. This may replace lacking alpha(1)-adrenergic tone under therapy with alpha(1)-blockers, explaining the limited efficacy of alpha(1)-blockers in LUTS treatment. Contractions by thromboxane and endothelin-1 may be additive, and may exceed alpha(1)-adrenergic tone. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.