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Cornely, Oliver A.; Leguay, Thibaut; Märtens, Johan; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Castagnola, Carlo; Verga, Luisa; Rieger, Christina; Kondakci, Mustafa; Härter, Georg; Duarte, Rafael F.; Allione, Bernardino; Cordonnier, Catherine; Heussel, Claus Peter; Morrissey, C. Orla; Agrawal, Samir G.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Bresnik, Mark; Hawkins, Michael J.; Garner, Will; Goekbuget, Nicola (2017): Randomized comparison of liposomal amphotericin B versus placebo to prevent invasive mycoses in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 72, No. 8: pp. 2359-2367
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Objectives: To prevent invasive fungal disease (IFD) in adult patients undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Patients and methods: In a double-blind multicentre Phase 3 study, patients received prophylactic liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) at 5 mg/kg intravenously or placebo twice weekly in a 2: 1 random allocation during remission-induction treatment. The primary endpoint was the development of proven or probable IFD. Secondary endpoints included those focused on the safety and tolerability of prophylactic L-AMB. Results: Three hundred and fifty-five patients from 86 centres in Europe and South America received at least one dose of L-AMB (n = 237) or placebo (n = 118). Rates of proven and probable IFD assessed independently were 7.9%(18/228) in the L-AMB group and 11.7%(13/111) in the placebo group (P = 0.24). Rates of possible IFD were 4.8% (11/228) in the L-AMB and 5.4% (6/111) in the placebo group (P = 0.82). The remission-induction phase was a median of 22 days for both groups. Overall mortality was similar between the groups: 7.2% (17/237) for L-AMB and 6.8% (8/118) for placebo (P = 1.00). Hypokalaemia and creatinine increase were significantly more frequent with L-AMB. Conclusions: The IFD rate among adult patients undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed ALL was 11.7% in the placebo group, andwas not significantly different in patients receiving L-AMB, suggesting that the L-AMB regimen studied is not effective as prophylaxis against IFD. The IFD rate appears higher than previously reported, warranting further investigation. Tolerability of L-AMB was what might be expected. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal antifungal strategy during remission-induction chemotherapy of ALL.