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Beyerlein, Andreas; Uusitalo, Ulla M.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Winkler, Christiane; Kersting, Mathilde; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schatz, Desmond; Aronsson, Carin Andren; Larsson, Helena Elding; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Ziegler, Anette-G.; Norris, Jill M.; Hummel, Sandra (2017): Intake of Energy and Protein is Associated with Overweight Risk at Age 5.5 Years: Results from the Prospective TEDDY Study. In: Obesity, Vol. 25, No. 8: pp. 1435-1441
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Objective: The associations of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake with weight status up to the age of 5.5 years were prospectively assessed in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Methods: Food record data (over 3 days) and BMI measurements between 0.25 and 5.5 years were available from 5,563 children with an increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes followed from shortly after birth. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for overweight and obesity by previous intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Having overweight or obesity at the age of 5.5 years was positively associated with mean energy intake in previous age intervals (e.g., adjusted OR [95% CI] for overweight: 1.06 [1.04-1.09] per 100 kcal intake at the age of 4.5-5.0 years) and with protein intake after the age of 3.5 and 4.5 years, respectively (e.g., adjusted OR for overweight: 1.06 [1.03-1.09] per 1% of energy intake at the age of 4.5-5.0 years). The respective associations with carbohydrate and fat intake were less consistent. Conclusions: These findings indicate that energy and protein intake are positively associated with increased risk for overweight in childhood but yield no evidence for potential programming effects of protein intake in infancy.