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Aurich, M.; Albrecht, D.; Angele, P.; Becher, C.; Fickert, S.; Fritz, J.; Müller, P. E.; Niemeyer, P.; Pietschmann, M.; Spahn, G.; Walther, M. (2017): Behandlung osteochondraler Läsionen des Sprunggelenks: Empfehlungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Klinische Geweberegeneration der DGOU. In: Zeitschrift für Orthopadie und Unfallchirurgie, Vol. 155, No. 1: pp. 92-99
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Abstract

Background Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies. Material and Methods This article is a review of the literature. Recommendations of the group "Clinical Tissue Regeneration" of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) for the treatment of OCLs of the ankle are presented. The review gives a concise overview on the results of clinical studies and discusses advantages and disadvantages of different treatment strategies. Results Non-operative treatment shows good results for selected indications in children and adolescents, especially in early stages of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). However, surgical treatment is usually indicated in OCLs in adolescents and adults, depending on the size and location of the lesion. Various arthroscopic and open procedures are frequently employed, including reattachment of the fragment, local debridement of the lesion with fragment removal and curettage of the lesion, bone marrow-stimulation by microfracture or microdrilling (antegrade or retrograde), and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC (R))-with or without reconstruction of a subchondral bone defect or cyst by autologous cancellous bone grafting. Isolated subchondral cysts with an intact cartilage surface can be treated by retrograde drilling and possibly additional retrograde bone grafting. For larger defects or as salvage procedure, osteochondral cylinder transplantation (OATS (R) or Mosaicplasty (R)) or matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are recommended. Transplantation of so-called (osteochondral) mega grafts, such as autologous bone grafts or allografts, are used for very large osteochondral defects that cannot be reconstructed otherwise. Implantation of the so-called "small metal implants"-such as HemiCAP Talus (R)-is reserved for selected cases after failed primary reconstruction. Corrective osteotomies are indicated in accompanying axial malalignments. Conclusions There are several different treatment strategies for OCLs, but clinical studies are rare and evidence is limited. Therefore, interventional studies, e. g. randomised controlled trials (RCTs), but also observational studies, e. g. based on data of the Cartilage Registry of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (www. knorpelregisterdgou. de), are needed and are recommended by the authors.