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Buffolo, Fabrizio; Monticone, Silvia; Williams, Tracy A.; Rossato, Denis; Burrello, Jacopo; Tetti, Martina; Veglio, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo (2017): Subtype Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism: Is Adrenal Vein Sampling Always Necessary? In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 4, 848
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Abstract

Aldosterone producing adenoma and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the two most common subtypes of primary aldosteronism (PA) that require targeted and distinct therapeutic approaches: unilateral adrenalectomy or lifelong medical therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. According to the 2016 Endocrine Society Guideline, adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard test to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone overproduction and therefore, to safely refer patients with PA to surgery. Despite significant advances in the optimization of the AVS procedure and the interpretation of hormonal data, a standardized protocol across centers is still lacking. Alternative methods are sought to either localize an aldosterone producing adenoma or to predict the presence of unilateral disease and thereby substantially reduce the number of patients with PA who proceed to AVS. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in subtyping PA for the diagnosis of unilateral and bilateral disease. We focus on the developments in the AVS procedure, the interpretation criteria, and comparisons of the performance of AVS with the alternative methods that are currently available.