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Taubert, Max; Zander, Johannes; Frechen, Sebastian; Scharf, Christina; Frey, Lorenz; Vogeser, Michael; Fuhr, Uwe; Zoller, Michael (2017): Optimization of linezolid therapy in the critically ill: the effect of adjusted infusion regimens. In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 72, No. 8: pp. 2304-2310
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Objectives: Insufficient linezolid levels, which are associated with a poorer outcome, are often observed in ICU patients who receive standard dosing. Although strategies to overcome these insufficient levels have been discussed, appropriate alternative dosing regimens remain to be identified. Methods: Various infusion regimens (1200-3600 mg/day;q6h, q8h, q12h and continuous) were simulated in 67000 ICU patients. The probability of attaining pharmacodynamic targets (T > MIC >= 85%, AUC/MIC >= 100, cumulative fraction of response for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp., PTA for an MIC of 0.5-4 mg/L) as well as the avoidance of toxic concentrations and concentrations constantly below the MIC (lack of antibiotic effect) or inside amutant selection window (resistance development) were evaluated. Results: Best target attainment according to T > MIC was observed for continuous infusions, followed by q6h, q8h and q12h. A substantially reduced target attainment was observed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In patients without ARDS, 1200 mg/day was insufficient irrespective of the regimen, while a dose of 1400 mg/day administered q6h or by continuous infusions provided an acceptable target attainment (e.g. cumulative fraction of response with regards to T > MIC >= 93%). Higher rates of potentially toxic trough concentrations (28% versus 12%) and concentrations constantly inside the mutant selection window (15% versus, 0.1%) were observed with continuous infusions compared with q6h infusions (1400 mg/day, patients without ARDS). Conclusions: Irrespective of the regimen, 1200 mg/day linezolid might be insufficient for the treatment of ICU patients. Patients without ARDS might particularly benefit from q6h infusions with increased daily doses (e.g. 1400mg/day).