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Nayak, Lakshmi; Angelis, Lisa M. de; Brandes, Alba A.; Peereboom, David M.; Galanis, Evanthia; Lin, Nancy U.; Soffietti, Riccardo; Macdonald, David R.; Chamberlain, Marc; Perry, James; Jäckle, Kurt; Mehta, Minesh; Stupp, Roger; Muzikansky, Alona; Pentsova, Elena; Cloughesy, Timothy; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Bent, Martin J. van den; Reardon, David A. (2017): The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale: a tool to assess neurologic function for integration into the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria. In: Neuro-Oncology, Vol. 19, No. 5: pp. 625-635
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The Macdonald criteria and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria define radiologic parameters to classify therapeutic outcome among patients with malignant glioma and specify that clinical status must be incorporated and prioritized for overall assessment. But neither provides specific parameters to do so. We hypothesized that a standardized metric to measure neurologic function will permit more effective overall response assessment in neuro-oncology. An international group of physicians including neurologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and neurosurgeons with expertise in neuro-oncology drafted the Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale as an objective and quantifiable metric of neurologic function evaluable during a routine office examination. The scale was subsequently tested in a multicenter study to determine its overall reliability, inter-observer variability, and feasibility. The NANO scale is a quantifiable evaluation of 9 relevant neurologic domains based on direct observation and testing conducted during routine office visits. The score defines overall response criteria. A prospective, multinational study noted a > 90% inter-observer agreement rate with kappa statistic ranging from 0.35 to 0.83 (fair to almost perfect agreement), and a median assessment time of 4 minutes (interquartile range, 3-5). The NANO scale provides an objective clinician-reported outcome of neurologic function with high inter-observer agreement. It is designed to combine with radiographic assessment to provide an overall assessment of outcome for neuro-oncology patients in clinical trials and in daily practice. Furthermore, it complements existing patient-reported outcomes and cognition testing to combine for a global clinical outcome assessment of well-being among brain tumor patients.