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Yan, Shuang G.; Li, Di; Yin, Shuai; Hua, Xingyi; Tang, Jian; Schmidutz, Florian (2017): Periprosthetic bone remodeling of short cementless femoral stems in primary total hip arthroplasty A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. In: Medicine, Vol. 96, No. 47, e8806
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Abstract

Background: Short-stem total hip arthroplasty (SHA) has been increasingly used in the treatment of hip arthroplasty. However, it is unclear whether there is a superiority of SHA in periprosthetic bone remodeling over standard stem total hip arthroplasty (THA). This meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) compared the periprosthetic bone remodeling after SHA and THA. Methods: PubMed and Embase were screened for relevant publications up to May 2017. RCTs that compared periprosthetic bone remodeling with bone mineral density (BMD) changes between SHA and THA were included. Meta-analysis was conducted to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Stata version 12.0. Quality appraisal was performed by 2 independent reviewers using RevMan 5.3 software and Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. Results: Seven studies involving 910 patients and 5 SHA designs (Proxima, Fitmore, Microplasty short, Unique custom, and Omnifit-HA 1017) were included for meta-analysis. The pooled data showed no significant differences in the percentage BMD changes in all Gruen zones, with Gruen zone 1 [ mean difference (MD)=11.33, 95% CI, -1.67 to 24.33;P=.09] and Gruen zone 7 (MD=8.46, 95% CI, -1.73 to 18.65;P=.10). Subgroup analysis of short SHA stems with lateral flare showed a significant less percentage BMD changes compared with standard THA in Gruen zone 1 (MD=27.57, 95% CI, 18.03-37.12;P<.0001) and Gruen zone 7 (MD=18.54, 95% CI, 8.27-28.81;P<.0001). Conclusion: The study shows moderate-quality evidence that periprosthetic bone remodeling around the analyzed SHA stems was similar to standard THA stems. However, short SHA stems with lateral flare revealed a moderate-to low-quality evidence for superiority over the standard THA and highlighted the importance of the different SHA designs. Besides, it has to be noticed that despite a similar pattern of periprosthetic bone remodeling, the femoral length where periprosthetic bone remodeling occurs is clearly shorter in SHA. Due to the moderate-to low-quality evidence and the limited stem designs analyzed, the further large-scale multicenter RCTs including the most recent SHA designs are required. However, the current findings should be considered by surgeons for counseling patients regarding total hip replacement.