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Rice, Simon M.; Aucote, Helen M.; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Amminger, G. Paul (2017): Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Gotland Male Depression Scale in an Australian Community Sample. In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol. 33, No. 3: pp. 190-195
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Abstract

The Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS) was developed to improve the assessment and identification of depression in men by assessing symptoms that fall outside DSM-V/ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depression. However, research findings from the GMDS have been markedly discrepant. Attempts to validate the latent GMDS factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) have yielded inconsistent results, bringing the validity and public health utility of the scale into question. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of five competing latent factor models identified from prior research. Data were obtained and analyzed separately from an Australian community sample of adult males (n = 318) and females (n = 345). Fit indices demonstrated the original GMDS two-factor model (distress, depression) to be a poor fit to the data. An alternative mixed three-factor model demonstrated improved model fit, although indices remained marginal. Results question the factor structure validity of the GMDS in the present sample and highlight the need for further psychometric development of the scale.