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Geerling, Gerd; Baudouin, Christophe; Aragona, Pasquale; Rolando, Maurizio; Boboridis, Kostas G.; Benitez-del-Castillo, Jose M.; Akova, Yonca A.; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Labetoulle, Marc; Steinhoff, Martin; Messmer, Elisabeth M. (2017): Emerging strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction: Proceedings of the OCEAN group meeting. In: Ocular Surface, Vol. 15, No. 2: pp. 179-192
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Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common and chronic disorder that has a significant adverse impact on patients' quality of life. It is a leading cause of evaporative dry eye disease (DED), as meibomian glands play an important role in providing lipids to the tear film, which helps to retard the evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. MGD is also often present in conjunction with primary aqueous-deficient DED. Obstructive MGD, the most commonly observed type of MGD, is the main focus of this article. MGD is probably caused by a combination of separate conditions: primary obstructive hyperkeratinization of the meibomian gland, abnormal meibomian gland secretion, eyelid inflammation, corneal inflammation and damage, microbiological changes, and DED. Furthermore, skin diseases such as rosacea may play a part in its pathology. Accurate diagnosis is challenging, as it is difficult to differentiate between ocular surface diseases, but is crucial when choosing treatment options. Ocular imaging has advanced in recent years, providing ophthalmologists with a better understanding of ocular diseases. This review presents a literature update on the 2011 MGD workshop and an optimized approach to accurate diagnosis of MGD using currently available methods and tests. It also outlines the emerging technologies of interferometry, non-contact meibography, keratography and in vivo confocal laser microscopy, which offer exciting possibilities for the future. Selected treatment options for MGD are also discussed. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.