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Renfro, Lindsay A.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Grothey, Axel; Sobrero, Alberto; Adams, Richard; Seymour, Matthew T.; Heinemann, Volker; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Hurwitz, Herbert; Fuchs, Charles S.; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Porschen, Rainer; Tournigand, Christophe; Chibaudel, Benoist; Hoff, Paulo M.; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F.; Falcone, Alfredo; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Hecht, J. Randolph; Souglakos, John; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cutsem, Eric van; Saltz, Leonard; Gramont, Aimery de; Sargent, Daniel J. (2017): Clinical Calculator for Early Mortality in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: An Analysis of Patients From 28 Clinical Trials in the Aide et Recherche en Cancerologie Digestive Database. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 35, No. 17: pp. 1929-1937
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PurposeFactors contributing to early mortality after initiation of treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer are poorly understood.Materials and MethodsData from 22,654 patients enrolled in 28 randomized phase III trials contained in the ARCAD (Aide et Recherche en Cancerologie Digestive) database were pooled. Multivariable logistic regression models for 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality were constructed, including clinically and statistically significant patient and disease factors and interaction terms. A calculator (nomogram) for 90-day mortality was developed and validated internally using bootstrapping methods and externally using a 10% random holdout sample from each trial. The impact of early progression on the likelihood of survival to 90 days was examined with time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsMortality rates were 1.4% at 30 days, 3.4% at 60 days, and 5.5% at 90 days. Among baseline factors, advanced age, lower body mass index, poorer performance status, increased number of metastatic sites, BRAF mutant status, and several laboratory parameters were associated with increased likelihood of early mortality. A multivariable model for 90-day mortality showed strong internal discrimination (C-index, 0.77) and good calibration across risk groups as well as accurate predictions in the external validation set, both overall and within patient subgroups.ConclusionA validated clinical nomogram has been developed to quantify the risk of early death for individual patients during initial treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. This tool may be used for patient eligibility assessment or risk stratification in future clinical trials and to identify patients requiring more or less aggressive therapy and additional supportive measures during and after treatment.