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Mack, Julia Katharina; Kienzle, Ellen (2017): Dietary measures for a dog with leishmaniasis undergoing allopurinol therapy - A case report. In: Tierärztliche Umschau, Vol. 72, No. 4: pp. 123-128
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Abstract

A dog suffering from canine leishmaniasis was referred for nutrition consultation. The dog was treated with the alkyl phospholipid miltefosin;additionally, it received the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol as a long-term treatment. Since allopurinol fosters the formation of xanthine uroliths due to its mode of action the dog's ration was requested to be adapted for prevention of urolith formation. In accord with the owner's preferences a diet for home-cooking was compiled, which observed the requirements imposed by an allopurinol therapy. Allopurinol impairs the protein metabolism of Leismania infantum. Additionally, it interferes with the metabolic pathway of purines (conversion of hypoxanthine via xanthine to uric acid), which may lead to xanthine accumulation and consequently urolith formation. Therefore, a ration recommendation must not only be balanced but above all contain a low purine content (e.g. egg or dairy products). Clinical relevance: Allopurinol is a substance commonly used in leishmaniasis therapy. Appropriate dietary measures have to be taken in combination with this therapy in order to minimise the risk of urolith formation.