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Arcolia, Vanessa; Journe, Fabrice; Renaud, Florence; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Remmelink, Myriam; Saussez, Sven (2017): Combination of galectin-3, CK19 and HBME-1 immunostaining improves the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. In: Oncology Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4: pp. 4183-4189
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Abstract

Currently, fine-needle aspiration is the most frequently used pre-operative technique for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors, however, pathologists are unable to reach efficient and accurate differential diagnoses between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. To aid in resolving this issue, immunohistochemistry for galectins (gal)-1, -3, -7, -8, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), Hector Battifora Mesothelial Epitope-1 (HBME-1) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) was performed on two tissue microarrays composed of 66 follicular adenomas (FA) and 66 papillary carcinomas (PC). The identification of optimal cut-off levels and the diagnostic value of single immunomarkers or combinations were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Signal intensities for gal-1, gal-3, CK19 and HBME-1 were significantly greater in PC compared with FA (P<0.001). Conversely, expression levels of TPO were significantly increased in FA compared with PC (P< 0.001). Gal-3 and CK19 appeared to be the most sensitive markers (97 and 98%, respectively), whereas galectin-1 was the most specific (97%). The combination of gal-3, CK19 and HBME-1 acted as the most efficient and informative marker panel reaching the greatest specificity (97%) and sensitivity (95%) for the diagnosis of PCs. The findings suggest that this combination of markers may improve the reliability of diagnosis of thyroid cancer.