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Faraoni, Valerio; Ellis, George F. R.; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Helou, Alexis; Musco, Ilia (2017): Foliation dependence of black hole apparent horizons in spherical symmetry. In: Physical Review D, Vol. 95, No. 2, 24008
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Numerical studies of gravitational collapse to black holes make use of apparent horizons, which are intrinsically foliation dependent. We expose the problem and discuss possible solutions using the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal mass. In spherical symmetry, we present a physically sensible approach to the problem by restricting to spherically symmetric spacetime slicings. In spherical symmetry, the apparent horizons enjoy a restricted gauge independence in any spherically symmetric foliation, but physical quantities associated with them, such as surface gravity and temperature, are fully gauge dependent. The widely used comoving and Kodama foliations, which are of particular interest, are discussed in detail as examples.