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Bonamigo, M.; Grillo, C.; Ettori, S.; Caminha, G. B.; Rosati, P.; Mercurio, A.; Annunziatella, M.; Balestra, I.; Lombardi, M. (2017): Joining X-Ray to Lensing: An Accurate Combined Analysis of MACS J0416.1-2403. In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 842, No. 2
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We present a novel approach for a combined analysis of X-ray and gravitational lensing data and apply this technique to the merging galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403. The method exploits the information on the intracluster gas distribution that comes from a fit of the X-ray surface brightness and then includes the hot gas as a fixed mass component in the strong-lensing analysis. With our new technique, we can separate the collisional from the collision-less diffuse mass components, thus obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the dark matter distribution in the core of a cluster. We introduce an analytical description of the X-ray emission coming from a set of dual pseudo-isothermal elliptical mass distributions, which can be directly used in most lensing softwares. By combining Chandra observations with Hubble Frontier Fields imaging and Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer spectroscopy in MACS J0416.1-2403, we measure a projected gas-to-total mass fraction of approximately 10% at 350 kpc from the cluster center. Compared to the results of a more traditional cluster mass model (diffuse halos plus member galaxies), we find a significant difference in the cumulative projected mass profile of the dark matter component and that the dark matter over total mass fraction is almost constant, out to more than 350 kpc. In the coming era of large surveys, these results show the need of multiprobe analyses for detailed dark matter studies in galaxy clusters.