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Langhals, Heinz; Eberspächer, Moritz; Mayer, Peter (2017): Uncatalyzed C-H Amination of Aromatic Compounds under Unusually Mild Conditions with Negative Enthalpies of Activation. In: Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 6, No. 8: pp. 1080-1085
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Abstract

Aromatic amines have been synthesized by the simple treatment of carboximides with concentrated azetidine in a fast reaction at room temperature. Strongly negative energies of activation and high reaction order for azetidine were found, which violated Arrhenius theory for a simple activated complex. The application of this reaction to perylenes allowed the synthesis of bathochromically absorbing functional dyes.