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Axthammer, Quinn J.; Krumm, Burkhard; Klapötke, Thomas M. (2017): The Exciting Chemistry of 1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethene and 1-Amino-1-hydrazino-2,2-dinitroethene. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 121, No. 18: pp. 3567-3579
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1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) is a relatively new highly energetic material, with good explosive performance and low sensitivity against mechanical stimuli and thermal stress. Therefore, on the one hand, FOX-7 is very stable and a starting material with fairly low reactivity. On the other hand, chlorosulfonyl isocyanate ClSO2NCO is a very reactive reagent and represents a highly activated form of isocyanic acid HNCO. New derivatives of FOX-7 and its hydrazine analogue 1-amino-1-hydrazino-2,2-dinitroethene, as well as unusual potassium salts, are described. Besides the usual spectroscopic characterization, the structures of all compounds were investigated and discussed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds demonstrate good thermal stabilities, very high densities, and excellent sensitivity values. The heats of formation were calculated, and together with the room-temperature densities, the energetic parameters were estimated. The compounds are potential candidates as insensitive high-energy-density materials and starting materials for further chemistry.