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Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Klapötke, Thomas M.; Witkowski, Tomasz G. (2017): Estimated Detonation Velocities for TKX-50, MAD-X1, BDNAPM, BTNPM, TKX-55, and DAAF using the Laser-induced Air Shock from Energetic Materials Technique. In: Propellants Explosives Pyrotechnics, Vol. 42, No. 4: pp. 353-359
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Since new energetic materials are initially produced in very small quantities for both safety and cost reasons, laboratory-scale methods for characterizing their performance are essential for determining the most promising candidates for scale-up. Laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM) is a promising new method for estimating the detonation velocity of novel explosives using milligram amounts of material, while simultaneously investigating their high temperature chemical reactions. LASEM has been applied to 6 new explosives for the first time: TKX-50, MAD-X1, BDNAPM, BTNPM, TKX-55, and DAAF. Emission spectroscopy of the laser excited materials revealed the formation of the high pressure bands of C-2 during the ensuing exothermic reactions. The low thermal sensitivity of the materials also led to unusual laser-material interactions, visualized with high-speed video. The estimated detonation velocities for the 6 explosives were compared to predicted values from EXPLO5 and CHEETAH. The LASEM results suggest that TKX-55, BDNAPM, and BTNPM have higher detonation velocities than predicted by the thermochemical codes, while the estimated detonation velocities for MAD-X1 and TKX-50 are slightly lower than those predicted.