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Schneider, Anna; Hornung, Severin; Weigl, Matthias; Glaser, Jürgen; Angerer, Peter (2017): Does it matter in the long run? Longitudinal effects and interactions in the differentiated job demands-resources model. In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 26, No. 5: pp. 741-754
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The distinction of challenge and hindrance stressors in the job demands-resources (JD-R) model has increasingly attracted the interest of occupational health researchers. Drawing on the differentiated JD-R framework, we tested causal, reciprocal, and interaction effects of challenge demands, hindrance demands, and job resources on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and work engagement. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling was used to analyse cohort data of N = 400 German physicians across three waves comprising 9 years of observation. Overall, support for our hypotheses was limited. Higher job resources were associated with reduced depersonalization in the first time lag of 2 years. No cross-lagged effects were found for the second time lag of 7 years. Out of 12 hypothesized interaction effects, only 1 significant interaction was observed, where job resources attenuated the positive association between challenge demands and depersonalization between the first and second waves. Results provide only modest support for differential effects of challenge and hindrance demands in the JD-R model. Potential shortcomings and implications for future research are discussed.