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Schubert, Oliver; Nold, Ephraim; Obermeier, Matthias; Erdelt, Kurt; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Beuer, Florian (2017): Load bearing capacity, fracture mode, and wear performance of digitally veneered full-ceramic single crowns. In: International Journal of Computerized Dentistry, Vol. 20, No. 3: pp. 245-262
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Abstract

Objectives: Computer-aided technologies can help to minimize clinical complications of zirconia-based restorations such as veneering porcelain fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate different veneering approaches for zirconia single crowns regarding contact wear, fracture strength, and failure mode. Methods: Six different types of computer-aided design (CAD) crowns were manufactured and conventionally cemented on 10 metal dies each: three groups with a zirconia framework and a CAD/CAM-fabricated veneering cap ("digital veneering system": DVS, CAD-on, Infix CAD), zirconia-based crowns with pressed veneering caps (Infix Press), zirconia framework containing the dentin layer with only the incisal enamel material added (dentin-core), and conventional substructure with powder buildup veneering porcelain (layering technique). All specimens were submitted to artificial aging (120,000 mechanical cycles, 50 N load, 0.7-mm sliding movement, 320 thermocycles). After contact wear was measured with a laser scanning system, fracture resistance and failure mode were examined using a universal testing machine and a scanning electron microscope. Statistical analysis was performed at a significance level of 5%. Results: No statistical difference was revealed regarding the contact wear of the restorations (P = 0.171;ANOVA). No significant difference was found regarding the fracture resistance of the crowns (P = 0.112;ANOVA). Failure analysis revealed three different failure patterns: cohesive veneering fracture, adhesive delamination, and total fracture, with a characteristic distribution between the groups. Significance: All tested specimens survived artificial aging and exhibited clinically acceptable wear resistance and fracture resistance. Digital veneering techniques offer a promising, time- and cost-effective manufacturing process for all-ceramic restorations and may usefully complement the digital workflow.