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Lazzerini, K.; Gutierrez-Quintana, R.; José-López, R.; McConnell, F.; Goncalves, R.; McMurrough, J.; Decker, S. de; Muir, C.; Priestnall, S. L.; Mari, L.; Stabile, F.; Risio, L. de; Loeffler, C.; Tauro, A.; Rusbridge, C.; Rodenas, S.; Añor, S.; Fuente, C. de la; Fischer, A.; Brühschwein, Andreas ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7833-8031; Penderis, J. and Guevar, J. (2017): Clinical Features, Imaging Characteristics, and Long-term Outcome of Dogs with Cranial Meningocele or Meningoencephalocele. In: Journal of Veterinary internal Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 2: pp. 505-512

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Background: The term meningoencephalocele (MEC) describes a herniation of cerebral tissue and meninges through a defect in the cranium, whereas a meningocele (MC) is a herniation of the meninges alone. Hypothesis/Objectives: To describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and outcomes of dogs with cranial MC and MEC. Animals: Twenty-two client-owned dogs diagnosed with cranial MC or MEC. Methods: Multicentric retrospective descriptive study. Clinical records of 13 institutions were reviewed. Signalment, clinical history, neurologic findings and MRI characteristics as well as treatment and outcome were recorded and evaluated. Results: Most affected dogs were presented at a young age (median, 6.5 months;range, 1 month -8 years). The most common presenting complaints were seizures and behavioral abnormalities. Intranasal MEC was more common than parietal MC. Magnetic resonance imaging identified meningeal enhancement of the protruded tissue in 77% of the cases. Porencephaly was seen in all cases with parietal MC. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis identified mild abnormalities in 4 of 11 cases. Surgery was not performed in any affected dog. Seventeen patients were treated medically, and seizures were adequately controlled with anti-epileptic drugs in 10 dogs. Dogs with intranasal MEC and mild neurologic signs had a fair prognosis with medical treatment. Conclusion and clinical importance: Although uncommon, MC and MEC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young dogs presenting with seizures or alterations in behavior. Medical treatment is a valid option with a fair prognosis when the neurologic signs are mild.

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