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Chan, Ka Lok; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Cheng; Zhou, Bin; Wenig, Mark O.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso (2017): On the summertime air quality and related photochemical processes in the megacity Shanghai, China. In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 580: pp. 974-983
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Summertime surface ozone (O-3) and related secondary formation of fine particles are the major air quality concerns in the megacity of Shanghai. We performed mobile Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) measurements to investigate the spatial distribution of on-road nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations along the Inner Ring Elevated Road (IRER) in Shanghai. The observations show a ratio of 4 between CE-DOAS averaged on -road NO2 and the in -situ ambient measurements, illustrating the strong impact of vehicle emissions over the urban area. The air mass transport analysis suggests that the observed episodic ozone events arise from both the abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) precursors in the sampled plume and the regional transport of ozone-rich air masses. Analysis of the sources of PM2.5 shows that the secondary heterogeneous gas-to-particle conversion of sulfate and nitrate from sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (N0x) is the largest source of PM25 contributing 44.8 +/- 9.2% of the total PM2.5. Ozone-related photochemical formation of fine particles is estimated to contribute about 22.5 +/- 11.9% of the total PM25, which is strongly facilitated by solar radiation in summer. According to our results, nitrous acid (HONO) is the major precursor of hydroxyl radicals (OH) accounting for 40% to 80% of the total OH production during daytime. A significant correlation is found between the HONO levels in the early morning and the daily 03 and PM2.5 levels. The summertime measurements indicate that the photolytic reaction of HONO after sunrise increased the abundance of daytime OH and oxidative capacity, resulting in an enhancement of ground level ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. This study provides quantitative information to better understand photochemical formation of ozone and fine particles in Shanghai during summertime, which is useful for designing collaborative strategies to mitigate emissions of precursor pollutants. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.