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Kettner, Marcos A.; Klapötke, Thomas M. (2017): Synthesis of New Oxidizers for Potential Use in Chemical Rocket Propulsion. In: Chemical Rocket Propulsion: A Comprehensive Survey of Energetic Materials: pp. 63-88
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Abstract

The currently used oxidizer for solid rocket propellants - ammonium perchlorate (AP) - has been detected as hazardous to human's thyroid gland, amphibian pigmentation and growth, and a large number of maritime life forms. Presently used or tested perchlorate-free alternatives like ammonium nitrate or ammonium dinitramide overcome these harms while showing up new problems like polymorphism, hygroscopicity, or a low thermal stability. Therefore, research is further driven toward environmentally more acceptable and strong oxidizers. One strategy is the synthesis of neutral CHNO-based materials for full or partial replacement of AP. Here we report about several new compounds with positive oxygen balance that were synthesized within our group over the last few years. The main focus is on the syntheses of molecules containing the trinitromethyl functionality due to the high oxygen content of this group. In addition the analogue fluorodinitromethyl derivatives were investigated for comparison. The prepared materials were chemically characterized, and in addition the sensitivities toward impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were determined experimentally. Furthermore, the performances regarding the specific impulse of aluminized mixtures of the compounds were calculated using the Explo5 computer code.