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Hagebeuker, Kristin; Zandt, Elisabeth; Wölfel, Inga; Weber, Stefanie and Poulsen Nautrup, Cordula (28. July 2018): Different forms of equine sculls produced with a 3D printer. 32nd Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists, Hannover, Germany, 25. - 28. Juli 2018.

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Introduction: With the anatomy of the horse being an important topic for many future veterinarians, teaching the anatomy of the equine scull with all its different osseous parts is a complex field of gross anatomy where many specimens are necessary. Since 3D printing offers new possibilities to produce numerous anatomically correct specimens, subject of this project was to develop 3D prints of two different horses’ sculls in different sizes. Materials and Methods: With the help of various CT datasets of an Arabian thoroughbred and a newborn foal, the basis for printable 3D datasets were produced. All datasets were checked and those, in which fine anatomic structures and landmarks were clearly visible, were chosen for processing. With the help of software such as OsiriX, Blender and zBrush® the resulting datasets were accurately processed until suitable for 3D printing. With a powder based 3D printing system, the complete sculls with all interior and exterior anatomic structures were printed in different sizes and subsequently evaluated by 3rd semester students. Results: Several sculls of an Arabian thoroughbred and a newborn foal – each in different scale (75% and 25% of the original) – were created. Each different size had its own features important for teaching. The smaller ones are used to achieve a general knowledge of the dimensions and parts of an equine scull, the larger ones are equipped with detailed visible structures such as foraminas and small processus to be used for teaching the interior and exterior finer structures. The printed specimens were evaluated positively by the students. Conclusion: For learning and teaching gross anatomy practically, a variety of specimen is necessary. Anatomically correct valuable equine sculls of horses at different ages in different sizes can easily be produced with the help of 3D printing in any requested number.

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