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Micek, Scott T.; Kollef, Marin H.; Torres, Antoni; Chen, Catherine; Rello, Jordi; Chastre, Jean; Antonelli, Massimo; Welte, Tobias; Clair, Bernard; Ostermann, Helmut; Calbo, Esther; Wunderink, Richard G.; Menichetti, Francesco; Schramm, Garrett E.; Menon, Vandana (2015): Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nosocomial Pneumonia: Impact of Pneumonia Classification. In: Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 36, Nr. 10: S. 1190-1197
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe and compare the mortality associated with nosocomial pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-NP) according to pneumonia classification (community-onset pneumonia [COP], hospital-acquired pneumonia [(HAP], and ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP]). DESIGN We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults with Pa-NP. We compared mortality for Pa-NP among patients with COP, HAP, and VAP and used logistic regression to identify risk factors for hospital mortality and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IIAT). SETTING Twelve acute care hospitals in 5 countries (United States, 3; France, 2; Germany, 2; Italy, 2; and Spain, 3). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS A total of 742 patients with Pa-NP. RESULTS Hospital mortality was greater for those with VAP (41.9%) and HAP (40.1%) compared with COP (24.5%) (P<.001). In multivariate analyses, independent predictors of hospital mortality differed by pneumonia classification (COP: need for mechanical ventilation and intensive care; HAP: multidrug-resistant isolate; VAP: IIAT, increasing age, increasing Charlson comorbidity score, bacteremia, and use of vasopressors). Presence of multidrug resistance was identified as an independent predictor of IIAT for patients with COP and HAP, whereas recent antibiotic administration was protective in patients with VAP. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with Pa-NP, pneumonia classification identified patients with different risks for hospital mortality. Specific risk factors for hospital mortality also differed by pneumonia classification and multidrug resistance appeared to be an important risk factor for IIAT. These findings suggest that pneumonia classification for P. aeruginosa identifies patients with different mortality risks and specific risk factors for outcome and IIAT.