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Poutvaara, Panu; Priks, Mikael (September 2017): Prevention of Football Hooliganism. A Review of the Evidence. In: Sturmey, Peter (ed.) : The Wiley Handbook of Violence and Aggression. Wiley-Blackwell.
Full text not available from 'Open Access LMU'.

Abstract

Hooligan violence is prevalent in many countries. Governments use various law enforcement methods with the common feature that they are costly. Theoretical work suggests that discriminative policing is effective in reducing crime but that indiscriminate policing, such as the use of teargas, may backfire. A problem when evaluating such theories empirically is that societies often respond to crime with law enforcement. It is therefore difficult to identify the cause and effect in law enforcement and crime. We review some empirical work that puts this problem at the center of the analysis. An overall conclusion is that the evidence supports the notion that discriminative law enforcement is effective against hooligan violence.