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Leibold, Christian ORCID: 0000-0002-4859-8000; Grothe, Benedikt ORCID: 0000-0001-7317-0615 (2015): Sound localization with microsecond precision in mammals: what is it we do not understand? In: e-Neuroforum, Vol. 6, No. 1: pp. 3-10
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Abstract

The Jeffress model for the computation and encoding of interaural time differences (ITDs) is one of the most widely known theoretical models of a neuronal microcircuit. In archosaurs (birds and reptiles), several features envisioned by Jeffress in 1948 seem to be implemented, like a topographic map of space and axonal delay lines. In mammals, however, most of the model predictions could not be verified or have been disproved. This led to an ongoing competition of alternative models and hypothesis, which is not settled by far. Particularly the role of the feed-forward inhibitory inputs to the binaural coincidence detector neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) remains a matter of debate. In this paper, we review the present state of the field and indicate what in our opinion are the most important gaps in understanding of the mammalian circuitry. Approaching these issues requires integrating all levels of neuroscience from cellular biophysics to behavior and even evolution.