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Boyan, George; Williams, Leslie; Herbert, Zsofia (2010): Multipotent neuroblasts generate a biochemical neuroarchitecture in the central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. In: Cell and Tissue Research, Vol. 340, No. 1: pp. 13-28
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We have examined the developmental expression of the neuromodulators locustatachykinin, leucokinin-1, allatostatin and serotonin in a subset of lineages (Y, Z) of the central complex in the brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. First, we show that all these neuromodulators are expressed in the same lineages during embryogenesis. The neuroblasts generating these lineages are therefore biochemically multipotent. Second, the neurons expressing the different neuromodulators are found clustered at stereotypic locations in their respective lineages. Locustatachykinin and leucokinin-1 map to the apical region of the lineage, allatostatin medially and serotonin to the base of the lineage. Since the location in these lineages translates into their birth order, we have been able ontogenetically to analyse their biochemical expression patterns. The age-profile within a lineage reveals that locustatachykinin- and leucokinin-1-expressing neurons are born first, then allatostatin neurons and finally serotoninergic neurons. Co-expression has been tested for serotonin with locustatachykin, leucokinin-1 or allatostatin and is negative but is positive for locustatachykinin and leucokinin-1, consistent with the stereotypic location of cells in the lineages. The delay between the birth of a neuron and the expression of its neuromodulator is stereotypic for each substance. Combined with a known birth date, this delay translates into a developmental expression pattern for the central complex itself.