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Boyan, George; Williams, J. L. D.; Herbert, Z. (2008): An ontogenetic analysis of locustatachykinin-like expression in the central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. In: Arthropod Structure & Development, Vol. 37, No. 6: pp. 480-491
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We have investigated the ontogenetic basis of locustatachykinin-like expression in a group of cells located in the Pars intercerebralis of the grasshopper midbrain. These cells project fibers to the protocerebral bridge and the central body via a characteristic set of fiber bundles called the w, x, y, z tracts. Lineage analyses associate the immunoreactive cells with one of four neuroblasts (termed W, X, Y, Z) in each protocerebral hemisphere of the early embryo. Locustatachykinin is a ubiquitous Myotropic peptide among the insects and its expression in the pars intercerebralis begins at approximately 60-65% of embryogenesis. This coincides with the appearance of the columnar neuroarchitecture characteristic of the central body. The number of immunoreactive cells in a given lineage is initially small, increases significantly in later embryogenesis, and attains the adult situation (about 7% of a lineage) in the first larval instar after hatching. Although each neuroblast generates progeny displaying a spectrum of cell body sizes, there is a clear morphological gradient, which reflects birth order within the lineage. Locustatachykinin expressing cells are located stereotypically at or near the tip of their lineage, which an age profile reveals places them amongst the first born progeny of their respective neuroblasts. Although these neuroblasts begin to generate progeny at approximately 25-27% of embryogenesis, their daughter cells remain quiescent with respect to locustatachykinin expression for over 30% of embryogenesis. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.