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Boyan, George; Williams, J. L. D.; Posser, S.; Braunig, P. (2002): Morphological and molecular data argue for the labrum being non-apical, articulated, and the appendage of the intercalary segment in the locust. In: Arthropod Structure & Development, Vol. 31, No. 1, PII S1467-8039(02)00016-6: pp. 65-76
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Our analysis of head segmentation in the locust embryo reveals that the labrum is not apical as often interpreted but constitutes the topologically fused appendicular pair of appendages of the third head metamere. Using molecular, immunocytochemical and retrograde axonal staining methods we show that this metamere, the intercalary segment, is innervated by the third brain neuromere-the tritocerebrum. Evidence for the appendicular nature of the labrum is firstly, the presence of an engrailed stripe within its posterior epithelium as is typical of all appendages in the early embryo. Secondly, the labrum is innervated by a segmental nerve originating from the third brain neuromere (the tritocerebrum). Immunocytochemical staining with Lazarillo and horseradish peroxidase antibodies reveal that sensory neurons on the labrum contribute to the segmental (tritocerebral) nerve via the labral nerve in the same way as for the appendages immediately anterior (antenna) and posterior (mandible) on the head. All but one of the adult and embryonic motoneurons innervating the muscles of the labrum have their cell bodies and dendrites located completely within the tritocerebral neuromere and putatively derive from engrailed expressing tritocerebral neuroblasts. Molecular evidence (repo) suggests the labrum is not only appendicular but also articulated, comprising two jointed elements homologous to the coxa and trochanter of the leg. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.