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Ludwig, P.; Williams, L.; Nassel, D. R.; Reichert, H.; Boyan, George (2001): Primary commissure pioneer neurons in the brain of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria: Development, ultrastructure, and neuropeptide expression. In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 430, No. 1: pp. 118-130
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The bilaterally paired primary commissure pioneer neurons in the median domain of the grasshopper brain are large, descending interneurons that uniquely express the TERM-1 antigen, even in the adult. After pioneering the primary interhemispheric brain commissure, these neurons extend TERM-1-immunoreactive collaterals into most parts of the brain except the mushroom bodies. In this report, the authors show that the TERM-1 antigen is located in the cell body cytoplasm of these neurons and not on the membranes. Screening with antisera to insect neuropeptides reveals that an antiserum recognizing peptides of the leucokinin family labels the cell body cytoplasm of the primary commissure neurons. Leucokinin-related peptides are known to modulate motility of visceral muscle, play a role in diuresis, and are likely to be neuromodulators in the insect nervous system. The primary commissure neurons differ ultrastructurally from median neurosecretory cells in that their cell body cytoplasm is more extensive, contains high numbers of mitochondria and extensive endoplasmic reticulum, but does not contain neurosecretory granules. In the adult, the cell somata are enveloped by multiple glia membranes and associated trophospongia. According to these ultrastructural characteristics, the primary commissure pioneers are not classical neurosecretory cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 430:118-130, 2001. (C) 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.