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Boyan, George; Williams, J. L. D.; Reichert, H. (1995): Morphogenetic reorganization of the brain during embryogenesis in the grasshopper. In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 361, No. 3: pp. 429-440
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Abstract

We have studied the morphogenetic reorganization that occurs in the grasshopper brain during embryogenesis. We find that morphogenetic movements occur at three organizational levels during brain development. First, the entire developing brain changes its orientation with respect to the segmental chain of ventral ganglia. A 90 degrees shift in the attitude of the brain neuraxis occurs during embryogenesis due to a gradual upward movement of the cerebral structures in the head. Second, the clusters of proliferating neuroblasts and progeny that generate the neuroarchitecture of the mature brain move relative to one another and to nonneural structures such as the stomodeum. This is especially pronounced for the pars intercerebralis and for the tritocerebrum, as shown by annulin and engrailed immunoreactivity. Third, individual neuroblasts within a given proliferative cluster undergo positional reorganization during embryogenesis. Identified neuroblasts of the tritocerebrum and the pars intercerebralis are displaced within the brain. We conclude that the transformation of the simple sheet-like structure of the early embryonic brain into the highly differentiated structure of the mature brain involves a series of morphogenetic movements that occur in virtually all parts of the brain. (C) 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.