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Wullimann, Mario F. (2011): Basal Ganglia: Insights into Origins from Lamprey Brains. In: Current Biology, Vol. 21, No. 13: R497-R500
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Abstract

The lamprey brain has now been shown to have basal ganglia circuitry, with an output that acts tonically on midbrain and brainstem motor centers and is modulated by ascending dopaminergic input. This condition was believed to represent the tetrapod condition, but now appears to be far more ancient.