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Ahrens, Katja; Wullimann, Mario F. (2002): Hypothalamic inferior lobe and lateral torus connections in a percomorph teleost, the red cichlid (Hemichromis lifalili). In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 449, No. 1: pp. 43-64
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The neuroanatomic connections of the inferior lobe and the lateral torus of the percomorph Hemichromis lifalili were investigated by 1,1', dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) tracing. The inferior lobe and the lateral torus both receive afferents from the secondary gustatory nucleus. Additional afferents reach the inferior lobe from the nucleus glomerulosus, nucleus suprachiasmaticus, dorsal and central posterior thalamic nucleus, nucleus lateralis valvulae, magnocellular part of the magnocellular nucleus of the preoptic region, caudal nucleus of the preglomerular region, posterior tuberal nucleus, area dorsalis of the telencephalon, and a tegmental nucleus (T2). Efferents from the inferior lobe and the lateral torus terminate in the dorsal hypothalamic neuropil and corpus mamillare. Furthermore, the inferior lobe projects to the medial nucleus of the lateral tuberal hypothalamus and perhaps makes axo-axonal synapses in the tractus tectobulbaris rectus. The inferior lobe and the torus lateralis have reciprocal connections with the preglomerular tertiary gustatory nucleus and posterior thalamic nucleus and are also mutually interconnected. The inferior lobe is also reciprocally connected with the medial nucleus of the preglomerular region, reticular formation and sparsely with the anterior dorsal thalamic and the ventromedial thalamic nuclei. Thus, whereas the lateral torus is exclusively connected with the gustatory system, the inferior lobe is of a multisensory nature. In comparison with the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the connectivity pattern of the inferior lobe of Hemichromis lifalili reflects its specialization with respect to the visual system, as it receives qualitative (i.e., dorsal posterior, anterior, and ventromedial thalamic nuclei) as well as quantitative (i.e., nucleus glomerulosus) additional visual input. J. Comp. Neurol. 449:43-64, 2002. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.