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Kunz, Lars ORCID: 0000-0003-3141-0005; Connelly, James P.; Woodhams, Josephine H.; MacRobert, Alexander J. (2007): Photodynamic modi. cation of disulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine. fluorescence in a macrophage cell line. In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 9: pp. 940-948
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Disulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlS(2)Pc) is used experimentally as a photosensitiser for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photochemical internalisation (PCI). In this study we have focused on modi. cations in intracellular photosensitiser localisation and fluorescence intensity in macrophages during and after photoirradiation. Since macrophages are highly abundant in tumour tissue and readily accumulate AlS(2)Pc both in vivo and in vitro, we investigated PDT-induced changes of AlS(2)Pc fluorescence in the murine macrophage cell line J774A. 1 using CCD fluorescence imaging microscopy. The distinct intracellular localization disappeared upon red laser irradiation and was replaced by a uniform distribution accompanied by a transient fluorescence intensity increase using higher AlS(2)Pc concentrations, followed by photobleaching after further irradiation. A short period of irradiation was sufficient to induce the intracellular redistribution and intensity increase, which then continued in the dark without further laser irradiation. However in the absence of oxygen no fluorescence intensity increase or redistribution was observed. This finding favours the general assumption of photodynamic destruction of organelle membranes resulting in the observed redistribution of the phthalocyanine. No other long-lived fluorescent photoproducts were observed during irradiation. Under deoxygenated conditions slower photobleaching was observed, and photobleaching quantum yields were estimated under aerated and deoxygenated conditions. The participation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROS) generated during irradiation was indicated by intracellular oxidation of 2', 7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein to the fluorescent 2', 7'- dichlorofluorescein in macrophages. The oxygen dependence of these photomodification processes is relevant to the application of AlS(2)Pc to photochemical internalisation which relies on photosensitiser redistribution in cells upon light exposure.