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Zeynudin, Ahmed; Pritsch, Michael; Schubert, Sören; Messerer, Maxim; Liegl, Gabriele; Hölscher, Michael; Belachew, Tefara; Wieser, Andreas (2018): Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of CTX-M type extended-spectrum -lactamases among clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli in Jimma, Ethiopia. In: BMC Infectious Diseases 18:524
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Background: The prevalence of extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in clinical isolates obtained from various hospitals in Ethiopia. However, there is no data on the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of CTX-M type ESBL produced by Gram-negative bacilli. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of the bla(CTX-M) genes and the susceptibility patterns in ESBL producing clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 224 non-duplicate and pure isolates obtained from clinically apparent infections, were included in the study. Identification of the isolates was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Susceptibility testing and ESBL detection was performed using VITEK (R) 2, according to EUCAST v4.0 guidelines. Genotypic analysis was performed using Check-MDR CT103 Microarrays.Results: Of the total 112 (50.0%) isolates screen positive for ESBLs, 63.4% (71/112) tested positive for ESBL encoding genes by Check-MDR array, which corresponds to 91.8% (67/73) of the total Enterobacteriaceae and 10.3% (4/39) of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli. Among the total ESBL gene positive isolates, 95.8% (68/71) carried bla(CTX-M) genes with CTX-M group 1 type15 being predominant (66/68;97.1% of CTX-M genes). The bla(CTX-M) carrying Enterobacteriaceae (n=64) isolates showed no resistance against imipenem and meropenem and a moderate resistance rate against tigecycline (14.1%), fosfomycin (10.9%) and amikacin (1.6%) suggesting the effectiveness of these antibiotics against most isolates. On the other hand, all the bla(CTX-M) positive Enterobacteriaceae showed a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype with remarkable co-resistances (non-susceptibility rates) to aminoglycosides (92.2%), fluoroquinolones (78.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (92.2%). Conclusions: This study demonstrates a remarkably high prevalence of bla(CTX-M) genes among ESBL-producing isolates. The high level of resistance to -lactam and non--lactam antibiotics as well as the trend to a MDR profile associated with the bla(CTX-M) genes are alarming and emphasize the need for routine diagnostic antimicrobial susceptibility testing for appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy.