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Maman, Issaka; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Kere, Abiba Banla; Piten, Ebekalisai; Beissner, Marcus; Kobara, Yiragnima; Kossi, Komlan; Badziklou, Kossi; Wiedemann, Franz Xaver; Amekuse, Komi; Bretzel, Gisela; Karou, Damintoti Simplice (2018): Risk factors for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli Ulcer) in Togo - a case-control study in Zio and Yoto districts of the maritime region. In: BMC Infectious Diseases 18:48
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Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected mycobacterial skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease mostly affects poor rural populations, especially in areas with low hygiene standards and sanitation coverage. The objective of this study was to identify these risk factors in the districts of Zio and Yoto of the Maritime Region in Togo. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in Zio and Yoto, two districts proved BU endemic from November 2014 to May 2015. BU cases were diagnosed according to the WHO clinical case definition at the Centre Hospitalier Regional de Tsevie(CHR Tsevie) and confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy and IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For each case, up to two controlsmatched by sex and place of residence were recruited. Socio-demographic, environmental or behavioral data were collected and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify and compare risk factors between BU cases and controls. Results: A total of 83 cases and 128 controls were enrolled. The median age was 15 years (range 3-65 years). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders identified age (< 10 years (OR = 11.48, 95% CI = 3.72-35.43) and 10-14 years (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.22-10.83)), receiving insect bites near a river (OR = 7.8, 95% CI = 1.48-41.21) and bathing with water from open borehole (OR = 5.77, (1.11-29.27)) as independent predictors of acquiring BU infection. Conclusions: This study identified age, bathing with water from open borehole and receiving insect bites near a river as potential risk of acquiring BU infection in Zio and Yoto districts of the Maritime Region in south Togo.