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Filipovic, Mark G.; Äschbacher, Stefanie; Reiner, Martin F.; Stivala, Simona; Gobbato, Sara; Bonetti, Nicole; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Schacky, Clemens von; Conen, David; Beer, Jürg H. (2018): Whole blood omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are inversely associated with blood pressure in young, healthy adults. In: Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 36, No. 7: pp. 1548-1554
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Abstract

Background:Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) may have blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in untreated hypertensive and elderly patients. The effect of n-3 FA on BP in young, healthy adults remains unknown. The Omega-3 Index reliably reflects an individuals' omega-3 status. We hypothesized that the Omega-3 Index is inversely associated with BP levels in young healthy adults.Methods:The current study (n=2036) is a cross-sectional study investigating the baseline characteristics of a cohort, which includes healthy adults, age 25-41 years. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, known diabetes or a BMI higher than 35kg/m(2) were excluded. The Omega-3 Index was determined in whole blood using gas chromatography. Association with office and 24-h BP was assessed using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Results:Median Omega-3 Index was 4.58% (interquartile range 4.08;5.25). Compared with individuals in the lowest Omega-3 Index quartile, individuals in the highest had a SBP and DBP that was 4 and 2mmHg lower, respectively (P<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship of the Omega-3 Index with 24-h and office BP was observed. Per 1-U increase in log-transformed Omega-3 Index the lowering in BP (given as multivariable adjusted coefficients;95% confidence interval) was -2.67mmHg (-4.83;-0.51;P=0.02) and -2.30mmHg (-3.92;-0.68;P=0.005) for 24-h SBP and DBP, respectively.Conclusion:A higher Omega-3 Index is associated with statistically significant, clinically relevant lower SBP and DBP levels in normotensive young and healthy individuals. Diets rich in n-3 FA may be a strategy for primary prevention of hypertension.