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Gashaw, Mulatu; Berhane, Melkamu; Bekele, Sisay; Kibru, Gebre; Teshager, Lule; Yilma, Yonas; Ahmed, Yesuf; Fentahun, Netsanet; Assefa, Henok; Wieser, Andreas; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Ali, Solomon (2018): Emergence of high drug resistant bacterial isolates from patients with health care associated infections at Jimma University medical center: a cross sectional study. In: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 7:138
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Abstract

Background: The rates of resistant microorganisms which complicate the management of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are increasing worldwide and getting more serious in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe microbiological features and resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens of HAIs in Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC) in Ethiopia.Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was carried out on hospitalized patients from May to September, 2016 in JUMC. Different clinical specimens were collected from patients who were suspected to hospital acquired infections. The specimens were processed to identify bacterial etiologies following standard microbiological methods. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined in vitro by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results: Overall, 126 bacterial etiologies were isolated from 118 patients who had HAIs. Of these, 100 (79.4%) were gram negative and the remaining were gram positive. The most common isolates were Escherichia coli 31(24.6%), Klebsiella species 30(23.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus 26 (20.6%). Of 126 bacterial isolates, 38 (30.2%), 52 (41.3%), and 24 (19%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories), extensively drug resistant (XDR, resistant to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories), pan-drug resistant (PDR, resistant to all antibiotic classes) respectively. More than half of isolated gram-negative rods (51%) were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC; and 25% of gram negative isolates were also resistant to carbapenem antibiotics.Conclusions: The pattern of drug resistant bacteria in patients with healthcare associated infection at JUMC is alarming. This calls for coordinated efforts from all stakeholders to prevent HAIs and drug resistance in the study setting.