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Cotofana, Sebastian; Gotkin, Robert H.; Ascher, Benjamin; Morozov, Sergey P.; Gombolevsky, Victor A.; Laipan, Albina S.; Pyatintsky, Ilya A.; Movsisyan, Tigran V.; Koban, Konstantin C.; Hladik, Casey; Frank, Konstantin (2018): Calvarial Volume Loss and Facial Aging: A Computed Tomographic (CT)-Based Study. In: Aesthetic Surgery Journal, Vol. 38, No. 10: pp. 1043-1051
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Background: Our understanding of the aging changes involving the cranium and its impact on the overlying soft tissues is limited. Objectives: This study was designed to look at the changes that occur in the cranium with aging and to propose an additional mechanism for loss of support for overlying soft tissues. Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven white individuals (10 males and 10 females in each decade: 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-9 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, 80-89 years, and 8 males and 9 females aged 90-8 years) were investigated. Computed tomographic (CT) multiplanar scans with standardized measurements of cranial thickness were performed for the frontal bone, nasion, vertex, pterion, lambda, calvarial and midfacial height, and sagittal and transverse diameter. Results: Increasing age correlated with a decrease in sagittal diameter in both males (r(p) = -0.201) and females (r(p) = 0.055) but with an increase in transverse diameter in both males (r(p) = 0.233) and females (r(p) = 0.207). Frontal bone thickness decreased in males 1.57mm/ 18.14%, whereas it increased slightly in females +0.26mm/+3.04%. At the pterion, bone thickness increased significantly in both genders. Calvarial volume decreased with increased age in both males and females: 70.2 ml/-5.35% and 61.4 ml/-5.10%, respectively. Conclusions: The lateral expansion of the skull may favor a skeletonized appearance of the face in elderly individuals. The computed volume of the calvaria decreased with advancing age in both genders, providing an additional element in the multifactorial model for facial soft-tissue laxity.