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Schaub, Annette; Goldmann, Ulrich; Mueser, T. Kim; Goerigk, Stephan; Hautzinger, Martin; Roth, Elisabeth; Charypar, Marketa; Engel, Rolf; Möller, Hans-Jürgen (2018): Efficacy of extended clinical management, group CBT, and group plus individual CBT for major depression: Results of a two-year follow-up study. In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 238: pp. 570-578
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Objective: Cognitive therapy has gained prominence in the treatment of major depression, however, little is known about its long-term benefits when delivered during inpatient treatment or combined with outpatient treatment with severely ill inpatients (HAM-D > 20). Method: To evaluate this question, we conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of extended clinical management (E-CM), psychoeducational cognitive behavioural group therapy (PCBT-G) or PCBT-G and 16 outpatient individual treatment sessions (PCBT-G+I). All patients were treated with pharmacotherapy. 177 inpatients with DSM-IV major depression were randomized either to E-CM or PCBT-G or PCBTG+I. Outcome measures were collected in the hospital at pre- and posttreatment and following discharge into the community every six months for two years. We compared the study groups on symptom changes, psychosocial functioning, knowledge about depression and rehospitalization. Results: All three treatment interventions are equally effective at reducing depressive symptoms and increasing psychosocial functioning at posttreatment. There was significant group by time interaction for knowledge about depression in favor of PCBT-G and PCBT-G+I over E-CM. We did not find significantly lower rehospitalisation rates at the two-year follow-up for PCBT-G+I compared to E-CM, however, comparing PCBT-G to E-CM. Conclusions: We conclude that with cognitive psychoeducational group therapy a successful, in the long-term other interventions superior psychological intervention for major depression is available as gains were sustained for two years following discharge from the hospital. More research is needed to evaluate the long-term impact of group treatment starting in inpatient treatment.