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Wirth, Ulrich; Rogers, Susanne; Haubensak, Kristina; Schopf, Stefan; Ahnen, Thomas von; Schardey, Hans Martin (2018): Local antibiotic decontamination to prevent anastomotic leakage short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Vol. 33, No. 1: pp. 53-60
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Anastomotic leakage still presents an issue in rectal cancer surgery with rates of about 11%. As bacteria play a critical role, there is the concept of perioperative local decontamination to prevent anastomotic leakage. To ascertain the effectiveness of this treatment, we performed a retrospective analysis on 206 rectal resections with primary anastomosis and routine use of a selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) regimen for local decontamination. SDD medication was administered every 8 h from the day before surgery to the seventh postoperative day. All patients were treated according to the fast-track protocol without mechanical bowel preparation;instead, a laxative was used. Overall morbidity was 30%, overall mortality 0.5%. In our data, overall rate of anastomotic leakage (AL) was 5.8%, with 3.9% in anterior rectal resection and 6.5% in low anterior rectal resection group. In 75% of cases, anastomotic leakage was grade "C" and needed re-laparotomy. Surgical site infection rate was 19.9%. No serious adverse events were related to decontamination. Local antibiotic decontamination appears to be safe and effective to decrease the rate of anastomotic leakage in rectal cancer surgery. Further focus should be on perioperative management including bowel preparation and choice of antimicrobial agents for local decontamination.