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Buhrmann, Constanze; Yazdi, Mina; Popper, Bastian; Shayan, Parviz; Goel, Ajay; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Shakibaei, Mehdi (2018): Resveratrol Chemosensitizes TNF-beta-Induced Survival of 5-FU-Treated Colorectal Cancer Cells. In: Nutrients, Vol. 10, No. 7, 888
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Abstract

Objective: Resveratrol, a safe and multitargeted natural agent, has been linked with inhibition of survival and invasion of tumor cells. Tumor Necrosis Factor-beta (TNF-beta) (Lymphotoxin alpha) is known as an inflammatory cytokine, however, the underlying mechanisms for its pro-carcinogenic effects and whether resveratrol can suppress these effects in the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. Methods: We investigated whether resveratrol modulates the effects of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and TNF-beta on the malignant potential of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT116) and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemoresistant derived clones (HCT116R) in 3D-alginate tumor microenvironment. Results: CRC cells cultured in alginate were able to migrate from alginate and the numbers of migrated cells were significantly increased in the presence of TNF-beta, similar to TNF-beta, and dramatically decreased by resveratrol. We found that TNF-beta promoted chemoresistance in CRC cells to 5-FU compared to control cultures and resveratrol chemosensitizes TNF-beta-induced increased capacity for survival and invasion of HCT116 and HCT116R cells to 5-FU. Furthermore, TNF-beta induced a more pronounced cancer stem cell-like (CSC) phenotype (CD133, CD44, ALDH1) and resveratrol suppressed formation of CSC cells in two different CRC cells and this was accompanied with a significant increase in apoptosis (caspase-3). It is noteworthy that resveratrol strongly suppressed TNF-beta-induced activation of tumor-promoting factors (NF-kappa B, MMP-9, CXCR4) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-factors (increased vimentin and slug, decreased E-cadherin) in CRC cells. Conclusion: Our results clearly demonstrate for the first time that resveratrol modulates the TNF-beta signaling pathway, induces apoptosis, suppresses NF-kappa B activation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), CSCs formation and chemosensitizes CRC cells to 5-FU in a tumor microenvironment.