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Nakazawa, Daigo; Desai, Jyaysi; Steiger, Stefanie; Müller, Susanne; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Iwakura, Takamasa; Anders, Hans-Joachim (2018): Activated platelets induce MLKL-driven neutrophil necroptosis and release of neutrophil extracellular traps in venous thrombosis. In: Cell Death Discovery, Vol. 4, 71
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Abstract

Venous thromboembolic (VIE) disease, often manifesting as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, involves clot formation consisting of blood cells and platelets locked in plasma protein and chromatin networks. The latter derives from neutrophil extracellular traps released by dying neutrophils;however, the molecular mechanisms of neutrophil death in VIE remains unknown. We speculated that mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL)-driven neutrophil necroptosis contributes to VTE. Indeed, human inferior venous cava thrombus material stained positive for phosphorylated MLKL, the activated version of MLKL that executes necroptotic cell death. In mice, MLKL immunostaining showed co-localization of MLKL with citrullinated histone H3, a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. These data provide indirect support for a role of MLKL-mediated necroptosis. As a functional proof, both the stabilizer of receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1) and necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1s as well as genetic deficiency of MLKL partially prevented clot formation upon inferior vena cava ligation in mice. In both experiments terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, RIPK3, and citrullinated histone H3+ areas were markedly reduced within the remnant thrombus. In vitro, thrombin-activated platelets induced cell death and NET formation in human neutrophils, which was inhibited by necrostatin-1s treatment. Necrostatin-1s and necrosulfonamide also inhibited neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation induced by tumor necrosis factor-a but had no effect on platelet activation itself. We conclude that in VTE, activated platelets, and possibly other triggers, induce neutrophil necroptosis, a process contributing to clot formation by releasing chromatin in the extracellular space.