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Anders, Hans-Joachim (2018): Necroptosis in Acute Kidney Injury. In: Nephron, Vol. 139, No. 4: pp. 342-348
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Background/Aims: Regulated necrosis is an expanding research field with important implications for acute kidney injury (AKI). A focused review of the evolving evidence for necroptosis in AKI, one of several forms of regulated necrosis defines the known and unknown. Methods: A literature search was performed in PUBMED and ScienceDirect between January 1957 and April 2018 using the following keywords: "acute kidney injury," "necrosis," "necroptosis," "necroinflammation." Results: The necroptosis signaling cascade involves a number of proteins including receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, and mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) as well as the MLKL regulator RGMb. The existing experimental evidence in AKI based on mice with genetic deletions of these proteins, more or less specific inhibitory compounds, and diverse experimental AKI models is reviewed. Conclusion: There is broad consistency suggesting a role for necroptosis in AKI, but some studies report divergent evidence potentially relating to the specific model used and the time point of analysis. Mlkl-deficient mice are currently the most specific and reliable experimental tool to study necroptosis in vivo in kidney disease). The clinical potential of necroptosis inhibition in AKI is to be evaluated, but conceptual problems in AKI definitions and in complex clinical scenarios remain a concern.