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Eckmann, C.; Kaffarnik, M.; Schappacher, M.; Otchwemah, R.; Grabein, B. (2018): Multiresistente gramnegative Bakterien. Klinischer Managementpfad für Patienten mit elektiven Eingriffen in der Viszeralchirurgie. In: Chirurg, Vol. 89, No. 1: pp. 40-49
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Abstract

Only a few antibiotics are available for treatment of infections with multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria (MRGN). The management of patients with MRGN colonization or infection is therefore of great importance with respect to postoperative morbidity and mortality. This article presents a description of the management pathway for patients with MRGN colonization. The prevalence of MRGN colonization is increasing, particularly for persons with contact to the healthcare system in endemic regions. The Robert Koch Institute demands an obligatory MRGN screening and isolation of patients with geographic or contact-related exposure risk for colonization with 4MRGN (carbapenemase producers). For patients with elective visceral interventions a prompt sensitive screening before inpatient admission is wise. Strict basic hygiene measures are essential to prevent transmission. Isolation is indicated for patients with 4MRGN and also for patients with 3MRGN in risk areas. Risk patients with unknown status are preemptively isolated. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered as a single dose and in cases of MRGN colonization substances effective against MRGN should be given if necessary. For treatment of secondary/tertiary peritonitis with a risk of MRGN involvement and in hemodynamically instable patients, effective extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) substances should primarily be used (e.g. tigecycline, carbapenems, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidim/avibactam). Ceftazidim/avibactam is also a novel therapy option for infections with carbapenamase-producing enterobacteria. The structured implementation of MRGN screening in patients at risk, stringent basic hygiene, targeted isolation and adequate calculated antibiotic therapy are essential measures in the management of the problem of MRGN in visceral surgery.